In 1066 Duke William of Normandy conquered England. He was crowned King, and most of the lands of the English nobility were soon granted to his followers. Domesday Book was compiled 20 years later.
The Saxon Chronicle records that in 1085
at Gloucester at midwinter ... the King had deep speech with his counsellors and sent men all over England to each shire ... to find out ... what or how much each landholder ....... in land and livestock, and what it was worth... The returns were brought to him.1
William was thorough. One of his Counsellors reports that he also sent a second set of Commissioners 'to shires they did not know, where they were themselves unknown, to check their predecessors' survey, and report culprits to the King.'2
The information was collected at Winchester, corrected, abridged, chiefly by omission of livestock and the 1066 population, and falrcopied by one writer into a single volume, now known as Domesday Book Volume I, or DB. The task of abridgement and codification was not complete by the time work stopped at the death of King William. The remaining material, the commissioners' circuit returns for Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex, which there had not been time to reduce, was left unabridged, copied by several writers, in a second volume, smaller than the first, usually now referred to as Domesday Book Volume II or Little Domesday Book or LDB, which states that 'the Survey was made in 1086'. The surveys of Durham and Northumberland, and of several towns, including London, were not transcribed, and most of Cumberland and Westmorland, not yet in England, was not surveyed. The whole undertaking was completed at speed, in less than 12 months, though the fair-copying of the main volume may have taken a little longer. Both volumes are now preserved at the Public Record Office. Some versions of regional returns also survive. One of them, from Ely Abbey,3 copies out the Commissioners' brief. They were to ask
The Ely volume also describes the procedure. The Commissioners took evidence on oath 'from the Sheriff; from all the barons and their Frenchmen; and from the whole Hundred, the priests, the reeves and six villagers from each village'. It also names four Frenchmen and four Englishmen from each Hundred, who were sworn to verify the detail.
The King wanted to know what he had, and who held it. The Commissioners therefore listed lands in dispute, for Domesday Book was not only a tax-assessment. To the King's grandson, Bishop Henry of Winchester, its purpose was that every 'man should know his right and not usurp another's'; and because it was the final authoritative register of rightful possession 'the natives called it Domesday Book, by analogy from the Day of Judgement'; that was why it was carefully arranged by Counties, and by landholders within Counties, 'numbered consecutively ... for easy reference'.6
Domesday Book describes Old English society under new management, in minute statistical detail. Foreign lords had taken over, but little else had yet changed. The chief landholders and those who held from them are named, and the rest of the population was counted. Most of them lived in villages, whose houses might be clustered together, or dispersed among their fields. Villages were grouped in administrative districts called Hundreds, which formed regions within Shires, or Counties, which survive today with minor boundary changes; the recent deformation of some ancient county identities is here disregarded, as are various short-lived modem changes. The local assemblies, though overshadowed by lords great and small, gave men a voice, which the Commissioners heeded. Very many holdings were described by the Norman term manerium (manor), greatly varied in size and structure, from tiny farmsteads to vast holdings; and many lords exercised their own jurisdiction and other rights, termed soca, whose meaning still eludes exact definition.
The Survey was unmatched in Europe for many centuries, the product of a sophisticated and experienced English administration, fully exploited by the Conqueror's commanding energy. But its unique assemblage of facts and figures has been hard to study, because the text has not been easily available, and abounds in technicalities. Investigation has therefore been chiefly confined to specialists; many questions cannot be tackled adequately without a cheap text and uniform translation available to a wider range of students, including local historians.
1 Before he left England for the last time, late in 1086.
2 Robert Losinga, Bishop of Hereford 1079-1095 (see E.H.R. 22, 1907, 74).
3 lnquisitio Eliensis, first paragraph.
4 A land unit, reckoned as 120 acres.
5 Quot Sochemani.
6 Dialogus de Scaccario 1,16
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Extracts From the Domesday Book
Liber de Wintona
A Survey of the Counties of England
LIBER DE WINTONIA
KING WILLIAM 1Winchester
general editor JOHN MORRIS
edited by Philip Morgan
|Et de his tris fcilicet Gosslaches . Bocheland . aliu Bocheland . tciu Bocheland Herste . . 1 . jugu de ora . I . jugu de Herte. Schildricheha . Macheheue . Ernulfitone. Oflachintone . Piria. alia Piria . Brulege . Ospringes . Hortone . ht rex . has forisfacturas . Handfoca. Gribrige . Foristel.||And over these land,, namely Goslaches, Buckland, the other Buckland, the third Buckland, Hurst, 1 yoke of Oare, 1 yoke of Harty, Schudricheham, Macknade, Arnolton, Oslachin tone, Perry, the other Perry, Throwley, Ospringe and Horton the King has these penalties: house-breaking, breach of the peace, highway robbery.|
IN THERA HVND Godefrid ten de archiepo in SCAPE . dimid folin . Tra . e
In dino . i . car . cu . ii . bord 1111 . ferui . T . R . E . post . ualuit . xxx . fot . Modo: 1111 . lib . tam reddit . c . fol .Osbn filius Letard ten . 1 . jugu
In TEYNHAM Hundred
Godfrey also holds 1/2 sulung in SHEPPEY from the Archbishop. Land for... In lordship 1 plough, with 2 smallholders and 4 slaves.
Value before 1066 and later 30s; now 4; however it pays lOOs.
|According to Lisa Tyler in her history of Sheppey, the Archbishop claimed dues of 7d and that Osbert Paisfoire held 1 and 1/2 yokes.|
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